For other uses, see, "Marcus Ulpius Trajanus" redirects here. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom, but the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. , After wintering in Antioch during 115/116 – and, according to literary sources, barely escaping from a violent earthquake that claimed the life of one of the consuls, M. Pedo Virgilianus – Trajan again took to the field in 116, with a view to the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign. It has even been ventured that, when earlier in his campaign Trajan annexed Armenia, he was bound to annex the whole of Mesopotamia lest the Parthians interrupt the flux of trade from the Persian Gulf and/or foment trouble at the Roman frontier on the Danube. In 114 he placed before his title Augustus the adjective Optimus (“Best”). Various authors have discussed the existence of the province and its location: André Maricq (La province d'Assyrie créée par Trajan. May you rule fortunate like Augustus and better than Trajan. , In 113, Trajan embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia's decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier.  These baths were later expanded by the third century emperor Decius as a means of stressing his link to Trajan. The correspondence also illustrates the wasteful expenditure of cities on lavish buildings and competition for municipal honours, an indication that the finances of the empire were already beginning to show inflationary trends. The Trajan font . Trajan™ By Adobe. Citizens were sent to Rome for trial. Upon reaching the Persian Gulf, he is said to have wept because he was too old to repeat Alexander the Great’s achievements in India. All Roman Emperors had complex names.  The biography by the German historian Karl Strobel stresses the continuity between Domitian's and Trajan's reigns, saying that Trajan's rule followed the same autocratic and sacred character as Domitian's, culminating in a failed Parthian adventure intended as the crown of his personal achievement. It comprised a porticoed square in the centre of which stood a colossal equestrian statue of the emperor. Cyprus also was the scene of a violent Jewish uprising, which seems likewise to have been quelled by Turbo. Trajan, né sous le nom de Marcus Ulpius Traianus le 18 septembre 53 à Italica et mort le 8 ou 9 août 117 à Selinus, en Cilicie, est empereur romain de fin janvier 98 à août 117. Lendon, "Three Emperors and the Roman Imperial Regime".  After the setbacks of the third century, Trajan, together with Augustus, became in the Later Roman Empire the paragon of the most positive traits of the Imperial order. , Trajan built a new city, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, on another site (north of the hill citadel holding the previous Dacian capital), although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa.  Book 68 in Cassius Dio's Roman History, which survives mostly as Byzantine abridgments and epitomes, is the main source for the political history of Trajan's rule. Its cubical base, decorated with reliefs of heaps of captured arms, later received Trajan’s ashes. , Shortly afterwards, the Jews inside the Eastern Roman Empire, in Egypt, Cyprus and Cyrene – this last province being probably the original trouble hotspot – rose up in what probably was an outburst of religious rebellion against the local pagans, this widespread rebellion being afterwards named the Kitos War. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. He also became a general over a full Roman legion. Concern about independent local political activity is seen in Trajan's decision to forbid Nicomedia from having a corps of firemen ("If people assemble for a common purpose ... they soon turn it into a political society", Trajan wrote to Pliny) as well as in his and Pliny's fears about excessive civic generosities by local notables such as distribution of money or gifts.  The Parthian summer capital of Susa was apparently also occupied by the Romans. Becoming Emperor While Trajan was serving as governor of Upper Germany, he received a letter from Emperor Nerva. , Not all of Dacia was permanently occupied.  Also, it is possible that the attachment of Trajan to an expansionist policy was supported by a powerful circle of conservative senators from Hispania committed to a policy of imperial expansion, first among them being the all-powerful Licinius Sura.  Trajan created at least fourteen new senators from the Greek-speaking half of the Empire, an unprecedented recruitment number that opens to question the issue of the "traditionally Roman" character of his reign, as well as the "Hellenism" of his successor Hadrian. Finally, in 105, Decebalus undertook an invasion of Roman-occupied territory north of the Danube. xxx. One was Pliny the Younger, whom he dispatched to Bithynia-Pontus, a province on the northern coast of Asia Minor. It's noteworthy, however, that Trajan, already in Syria early in 113, consistently refused to accept diplomatic approaches from the Parthians in order to settle the Armenian imbroglio peacefully.. Dio, who tells this narrative, offers his father – the then governor of Cilicia Apronianus – as a source, and therefore his narrative is possibly grounded on contemporary rumor. Evidence of this comes from a marble slab discovered near Caput Bovis, the site of a Roman fort.  Mommsen adopted a divided stance towards Trajan, at some point of his posthumously published lectures even speaking about his "vainglory" (Scheinglorie). He had pursued a senatorial career without particular distinction and had not been officially adopted by Trajan (although he received from him decorations and other marks of distinction that made him hope for the succession). He named Marcus Ulpius Traianus - better known as Trajan - the recently named governor of Upper Germany as his “son.” On January 28, 91 CE Nerva died a natu… Robert Mankin, "Edward Gibbon: Historian in Space". , That Trajan's ideal role was a conservative one becomes evident from Pliny's works as well as from the orations of Dio of Prusa – in particular his four Orations on Kingship, composed early during Trajan's reign. , In 107 Trajan devalued the Roman currency. Col. 1485. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the second-greatest military expansion in Roman history after Augustus, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. Trajan. Nerva died in 98 and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. Quelques renseignements inobservés (Jean d'Ephèse, Anthologie Grecque XVI 72)". Aside from their enormous booty (over half a million slaves, according to John Lydus), Trajan's Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire's finances through the acquisition of Dacia's gold mines, managed by an imperial procurator of equestrian rank (procurator aurariarum). Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia (and largely financed from that campaign's loot) – consisting of a forum, Trajan's Column, and Trajan's Market, still stands in Rome today. lib1. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the wish felicior Augusto, melior Traiano (that he be "luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan"). , In Egypt, Trajan was quite active in constructing buildings and decorating them.  There could also be Trajan's idea to use an ambitious blueprint of conquests as a way to emphasize quasi-divine status, such as with his cultivated association, in coins and monuments, to Hercules. , The following winter, King Decebalus took the initiative by launching a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, supported by Sarmatian cavalry, forcing Trajan to come to the aid of the troops in his rearguard.  Including auxiliaries, the number of Roman troops engaged on both campaigns was between 150,000 and 175,000, while Decebalus could dispose of up to 200,000. It was not a decisive victory, however. Author of.  Another rebellion flared up among the Jewish communities of Northern Mesopotamia, probably part of a general reaction against Roman occupation. Timgad (Arabic: تيمقاد ; called Thamugas or Thamugadi in old Berber) was a Roman city in the Aurès Mountains of Algeria.It was founded by the Emperor Trajan around CE 100.  It is possible that Quietus' campaign had as its goal the extending of the newer, more defensible Roman border eastwards towards the Caspian Sea and northwards to the foothills of the Caucasus. Born into a non-patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica, Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian.Serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, Trajan successfully put down the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89.  The whole idea was that Trajan wielded autocratic power through moderatio instead of contumacia – moderation instead of insolence. Pierre Lambrechts, "Trajan et le récrutement du Sénat". Full Name Stats . He saw this withdrawal as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to Lusius Quietus, who meanwhile (early 117) had been made governor of Judaea and might have had to deal earlier with some kind of Jewish unrest in the province.  Therefore, use of slave labor in the province itself seems to have been relatively undeveloped, and epigraphic evidence points to work in the gold mines being conducted by means of labor contracts (locatio conductio rei) and seasonal wage-earning. , As governor of Lower Germany during Nerva's reign, Trajan received the impressive title of Germanicus for his skillful management and rule of the volatile Imperial province. Trajan built a new city, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, on another site (north of the hill citadel holding the previous Dacian capital) although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. Also, a mural of Trajan stopping to provide justice for a poor widow is present in the first terrace of Purgatory as a lesson to those who are purged for being proud.  Later in 116, Trajan, with the assistance of Quietus and two other legates, Marcus Erucius Clarus and Tiberius Julius Alexander Julianus, defeated a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatruces was killed (possibly with the assistance of Osroes' son and Sanatruces' cousin, Parthamaspates, whom Trajan wooed successfully). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Frank Vermeulen, Kathy Sas, Wouter Dhaeze, eds. , The main regional effort of urbanization was concentrated by Trajan at the rearguard, in Moesia, where he created the new cities of Nicopolis ad Istrum and Marcianopolis.  As Pliny said in one of his letters at the time, it was official policy that Greek civic elites be treated according to their status as notionally free but not put on an equal footing with their Roman rulers. Eugen Cizek, "Tacite face à Trajan", available at, Fritz Heichelheim, Cedric Veo, Allen Ward,(1984), The History of the Roman People, pp. , Eventually, it fell to Pliny, as imperial governor of Bithynia in 110 AD, to deal with the consequences of the financial mess wrought by Dio and his fellow civic officials. What is known is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra and Bosrah, as is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. However, senatorial opinion never forgave Domitian for paying what was seen as "tribute" to a Barbarian king. Some ancient sources also tell about his having built a bath named after him on the Aventine Hill in Rome, or having this bath built by Trajan and then named after him, in either case a signal of honour as the only exception to the established rule that a public building in the capital could be dedicated only to a member of the imperial family. Instead of returning to Rome at once to accept from the Senate the imperial powers, he remained for nearly a year on the Rhine and Danube rivers, either to make preparations for a coming campaign into Dacia (modern Transylvania and Romania) or to ensure that discipline was restored and defenses strengthened.  In addition Hadrian was born in Hispania and seems to have been well connected with the powerful group of Spanish senators influential at Trajan's court through his ties to Plotina and the Prefect Attianus. The full name of the city was Colonia Marciana Ulpia Traiana Thamugadi.Trajan named the city in commemoration of his mother Marcia, eldest sister Ulpia Marciana, and father Marcus Ulpius Traianus. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches, many of which survive, and a builder of roads such as the Via Traiana - the extension of the Via Appia from Beneventum to Brundisium - and Via Traiana Nova, a mostly military road between Damascus and Aila, whose building was connected to the founding of the province of Arabia (see annexation of Nabataea) . He appears, together with Domitian, in offering scenes on the propylon of the Temple of Hathor at Dendera. ", These same Roman authorities had also an interest in assuring the cities' solvency and therefore ready collection of Imperial taxes. He declared Babylon a new province of the Empire and had his statue erected on the shore of the Persian Gulf, after which he sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and bemoaning that he was too old to go on any further and repeat the conquests of Alexander the Great.  Trajan's accession, therefore, could qualify more as a successful coup than an orderly succession. While his family was probably well-to-do and prominent in Baetica, his father was the first to have a career in the imperial service. Only fragments remain of the Getica, a book by Trajan's personal physician Titus Statilius Criton. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Trajan Pro Regular 1. , The alternative view is to see the campaign as triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige, the sole motive ascribed by Cassius Dio. The Trajan font When he returned to Rome in 99, he behaved with respect and affability toward the Senate. Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under the Trajan's Column. Their military function fulfilled, most of them fell into disrepair or were wrecked on purpose after Trajan's reign: cf. Having come to the narrow strip of land between the Euphrates and the Tigris, he then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia and finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. , In contrast, the next prominent Roman figure in charge of the repression of the Jewish revolt, the equestrian Quintus Marcius Turbo, who had dealt with the rebel leader from Cyrene, Loukuas, retained Hadrian's trust, eventually becoming his Praetorian Prefect. Trajan was the son of Marcia and Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent sen…  "It's well established that [the cities' finances] are in a state of disorder", Pliny once wrote to Trajan, plans for unnecessary works made in collusion with local contractors being identified as one of the main problems. Marcel Emerit. M.S. , By not openly supporting Domitian's preference for equestrian officers, Trajan appeared to conform to the idea (developed by Pliny) that an emperor derived his legitimacy from his adherence to traditional hierarchies and senatorial morals. "Les derniers travaux des historiens roumains sur la Dacie". On January 1, 98, Trajan entered upon his second consulship as Nerva’s colleague. His father, of the same name, was a senator and had served as consul. The Romans gradually tightened their grip around Decebalus' stronghold in Sarmizegetusa Regia, which they finally took and destroyed. In the Divine Comedy, Dante, following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter with other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice.  Additionally, Trajan commissioned a canal to be built around the rapids of the Iron Gates. , Aware that the Parthian campaign was an enormous setback, and that it revealed that the Roman Empire had no means for an ambitious program of conquests, Hadrian's first act as emperor was to abandon – outwardly out of his own free will – the distant and indefensible Mesopotamia and to restore Armenia, as well as Osrhoene, to the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty. ", In the 18th-century King Charles III of Spain commissioned Anton Raphael Mengs to paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banquet hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid – considered among the best works of this artist. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.  Also, there was the propaganda value of an Eastern conquest that would emulate, in Roman fashion, those of Alexander the Great. His imperial name … Website Publishing Create a Web Project to add any font from our service to your website. , Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 BC – But a revolt led by Sanatruces, a nephew of the Parthian king Osroes I who had retained a cavalry force, possibly strengthened by the addition of Saka archers, imperiled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia. Paraskevi Martzavou, Nikolaos Papazarkadas, eds., Giuseppe Zecchini, "Plutarch as Political Theorist and Trajan", E. Guerber, "Les correctores dans la partie hellénophone de l'empire Romain du règne de Trajan à l'avènement de Dioclétien : étude prosopographique".  The fact that the alimenta were begun during and after the Dacian Wars and twice came on the heels of a distribution of money to the population of Rome (congiaria) following Dacian triumphs, points towards a purely charitable motive. The care bestowed by Trajan on the managing of such public spectacles led the orator Fronto to state approvingly that Trajan had paid equal attention to entertainments as well as to serious issues. 353, 354 Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. , One of Trajan's notable acts during this period was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date is unknown).  Other prominent Eastern senators included Gaius Julius Alexander Berenicianus, a descendant of Herod the Great, suffect consul in 116. His severed head, brought to Trajan by the cavalryman Tiberius Claudius Maximus, was later exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol and thrown on the Gemonian stairs. , Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. 000;Core 1. Trajan Designed by Carol Twombly and Robert Slimbach.  Mommsen also speaks of Trajan's "insatiable, unlimited lust for conquest". Giovanni Salmeri, "Dio, Rome, and the Civic Life of Asia Minor" IN Simon Swain, ed.. Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase, eds.. Paul Veyne, "L'identité grecque devant Rome et l'empereur". His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicly acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra showed him clearly aged and emaciated.  The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea (modern southern Jordan and north west Saudi Arabia). Roman emperor, born at Italica, in Spain, on the 18th of September 53. It is usually assumed that the program was intended to bolster citizen numbers in Italy, following the provisions of Augustus' moral legislation (Lex Julia) favoring procreation on moral grounds – something openly acknowledged by Pliny. His major campaigns as emperor were against the Dacians, in 106, which vastly increased the Roman imperial coffers, and against the Parthians, beginning in 113, which was not a clear and decisive victory.  Eventually, Dio gained for Prusa the right to become the head of the assize-district, conventus (meaning that Prusans did not have to travel to be judged by the Roman governor), but eleutheria (freedom, in the sense of full political autonomy) was denied.  In general terms, the scheme functioned by means of mortgages on Italian farms (fundi), through which registered landowners received a lump sum from the imperial treasure, being in return expected to pay yearly a given proportion of the loan to the maintenance of an alimentary fund. , Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. , Trajan built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia and his native Hispania.  Sura is also described as telling Hadrian in 108 about his selection as imperial heir. Trajan deified Nerva and included his name in his imperial title.  In the absence of conclusive evidence, trade between Rome and India might have been far more balanced, in terms of quantities of precious metals exchanged: one of our sources for the notion of the Roman gold drain – Pliny's the Younger's uncle Pliny the Elder – had earlier described the Gangetic Plains as one of the gold sources for the Roman Empire. In 70 Vespasian, by then emperor, rewarded him with a consulship and a few years later enrolled him among the patricians, Rome’s most aristocratic group within the senatorial class.  A revealing case-history, told by Pliny, tells of Dio of Prusa placing a statue of Trajan in a building complex where Dio's wife and son were buried - therefore incurring a charge of treason for placing the Emperor's statue near a grave. Trajan undertook or encouraged extensive public works: roads, bridges, aqueducts, the reclamation of wastelands, and the construction of harbours and buildings. Trajan presided as emperor over the largest military expansion within the age of the Pax Romana - and also built multiple public projects, such as dams, waterways, bridges, roads, etc. Therefore, in October 97, Nerva adopted as his successor Trajan, whom he had made governor of Upper Germany and who seemed acceptable both to the army commanders and to the Senate. He is also remembered for Trajan’s Column, an innovative work of art that commemorated his Dacian Wars.  Another hypothesis is that the rulers of Charax had expansionist designs on Parthian Babylon, giving them a rationale for alliance with Trajan. , As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army, serving in some of the most contested parts of the Empire's frontier.  Even after the Dacian wars, the Danube frontier would permanently replace the Rhine as the main military axis of the Roman Empire. 27;makeotf. Rome, in particular, was enriched by Trajan’s projects. His campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. For instance, the man we know as Trajan was Marcus Ulpius Traianus at birth. 206, xxxi. He sent orders to Rome for the execution of the praetorians who had forced Nerva to execute the conspirators who had brought him to the throne. In the West, that meant local senatorial families like his own. Separate scenes of Domitian and Trajan making offerings to the gods appear on reliefs on the propylon of the Temple of Hathor at Dendera. 32 f. and 73 f., Many emperor's after Trajan would, when they were sworn into office, be wished "Felicior Augusto, Melior Traiano." Package; Trajan Complete Family Pack . As all four consulars were senators of the highest standing and as such generally regarded as able to take imperial power (capaces imperii), Hadrian seems to have decided on a preemptive strike against these prospective rivals. Trajan was born in Italica, close to modern Seville in present-day Spain, an Italic settlement in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. He served 10 years as a legionary staff tribune.  Defense of the province was entrusted to a single legion, the XIII Gemina, stationed at Apulum, which functioned as an advanced guard that could, in case of need, strike either west or east at the Sarmatians living at the borders. Impressive examples survive in Spain, in North Africa, in the Balkans, and in Italy. Before his accession, Trajan had married Pompeia Plotina, to whom he remained devoted. , Following the design of Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan ordered the building of a massive bridge over the Danube, over which the Roman army was able to cross the river swiftly and in numbers, as well as to send in reinforcements, even in winter when the river was not frozen enough to bear the passage of a party of soldiers.  In about 86, Trajan's cousin Aelius Afer died, leaving his young children Hadrian and Paulina orphans. Trajan ordered Prefect Aelianus to attend him in Germany, where he was apparently executed ("put out of the way"), with his post being taken by Attius Suburanus. This can be explained in part by the prominence of his father's career, as his father had been instrumental to the ascent of the ruling Flavian dynasty, held consular rank himself and had just been made a patrician. Jesper Majbom Madsen, Roger David Rees, eds. In Spain, Trajan had an early rigorous military training in the frontier provinces holding several important military posts. Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, 18 September 53 – 9 August 117) was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117. The choice was not a difficult one. His cartouche also appears in the column shafts of the Temple of Khnum at Esna. R. P. Longden, "Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan".  The area between the Khabur River and the mountains around Singara seems to have been considered as the new frontier, and as such received a road surrounded by fortresses. Trajan sought to deal with this by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially. , The first known corrector was charged with a commission "to deal with the situation of the free cities", as it was felt that the old method of ad hoc intervention by the Emperor and/or the proconsuls had not been enough to curb the pretensions of the Greek notables. Alan Bowman, Peter Garnsey, Averil Cameron, eds., Meléndez, Javier Bermejo, Santiago Robles Esparcia, and Juan M. Campos Carrasco. Download TrajanPro-Regular font free in ttf format for Windows and Mac. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. What was permanently included in the province, after the post-Trajanic evacuation of some land across the lower Danube, were the lands extending from the Danube to the inner arch of the Carpathian Mountains, including Transylvania, the Metaliferi Mountains and Oltenia. 004;PS 001. , Competition among Greek cities and their ruling oligarchies was mainly for marks of preeminence, especially for titles bestowed by the Roman emperor. His conquest of Dacia enriched the empire greatly, as the new province possessed many valuable gold mines. Dante, The Divine Comedy, Purgatorio X, ll. Trajan, Latin in full Caesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus, also called (97–98 CE) Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus, original name Marcus Ulpius Traianus, (born September 15?, 53 ce, Italica, Baetica [now in Spain]—died August 8/9, 117, Selinus, Cilicia [now in Turkey]), Roman emperor (98–117 ce) who sought to extend the boundaries of the empire to the east (notably in Dacia, … He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace within the Empire and prosperity in the Mediterranean world.  For the same reason, judging from Pliny's letters it can also be assumed that Trajan and his aides were as much bored as they were alarmed by the claims of Dio and other Greek notables to political influence based on what they saw as their "special connection" to their Roman overlords. Find the complete details of Trajan name on BabyNamesCube, the most trusted source for baby name meaning, numerology, origins, similar names and more! He sent out at least two special governors to provinces whose cities had suffered financial difficulties.  The fact that these former Danubian outposts had ceased to be frontier bases and were now in the deep rear acted as an inducement to their urbanization and development.  Trajan's ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan's column, the monument commemorating his success.  In 104 Decebalus devised a failed attempt on Trajan's life by means of some Roman deserters, and held prisoner Trajan's legate Longinus, who eventually poisoned himself while in custody. Certes, il descend de colons italiens immigrés, et il a même grandi au sein de la noble famille des Vlpii (il s'appelait Marcus Vlpius Traianus). Soon thereafter, on January 27 or 28, Nerva died, and Trajan was accepted as emperor by both the armies and the Senate. IN. Add to Cart Checkout In Cart (0) Desktop 55 27.50 55. Trajan was a Roman emperor (98–117 CE) who sought to extend the boundaries of the empire to the east, undertook a vast building program, and enlarged social welfare. The wretched woman, in the midst of all this,  Some measures seem to have been considered regarding the fiscal administration of Indian trade – or simply about the payment of customs (portoria) on goods traded on the Euphrates and Tigris.